Mack Holmberg, MD
1. Develop a framework for differentiating the cause (pre/intra/post-renal) of acute kidney injury (AKI)
Plan to spend at least 30 minutes preparing for this talk by using the Interactive Board for Learning/Preparing and clicking through the headings to see the pre/intra/post framework. This talk can be presented in two ways:
1. Project the “Interactive Board for Presentation”
2. Reproduce a drawing of the presentation on a whiteboard.
With either method, print out copies of the Learner’s Handout so they may follow along during the presentation and take notes as you expand on the pathophysiology and differential. Begin with reviewing the objectives for the session. Ask the learners how they know a patient has developed an AKI. We have defined it as an abrupt decrease in GFR which is characterized by a rise in Cr, often with decreased UOP. This is a good time to remind them of the importance of characterizing an AKI as non-oliguric, oliguric or anuric. The KDIGO criteria are much more specific but reliant on accurate measurement of recent UOP and Cr, and therefore not as clinically relevant for a patient presenting to clinic or the ED.
Before moving forward, ask the learners their framework for an AKI differential; if they don’t respond with pre/intra/post, then introduce it to them and proceed with asking which one-liner and accompanying labs are associated with which. Since intra-renal is much more involved, it is recommended that you cover pre/post-renal (left side of the screen) before moving on. Click on the Cases to reveal the clinical history, then click on “Etiology?” to reveal the respective schema. If you are recreating this talk on a whiteboard, simply provide the learners with the one-liners before writing the pre/intra/post. The entire talk will take 25-35 minutes to deliver.
1. Learner Handout
INTERACTIVE BOARD FOR PREPARING A TALK OR SELF-DIRECTED LEARNING
*Teachers: Use this interactive board to become familiar with the material and framework for the talk.
*See “Print outs” above for printable version
TAKE HOME POINTS
1. Pre-renal AKI is diagnosed by clinical history and a FeNa <1%, if oliguric
2. Post-renal AKI is easily ruled out by the renal US excluding hydronephrosis
3. Intra-renal has is effectively identified by ruling out pre and post renal causes along with active urine sediment.