Published February 2021
Brandon Fainstad, MD
Meara Melton, MD
Expert review – Pending
- Determine appropriate indications and contraindications for a steroid injection of the subacromial space.
- Perform all critical steps of a steroid injection in the shoulder (accept needle insertion) using a high-fidelity simulation-based training with directly observed instruction.
- Perform all critical steps of a steroid injection of the shoulder in a clinical environment under preceptor supervision.
There are three stages to this training experience.
1. Pre-work (see the section below): have the learners watch a brief introductory video and fill out the worksheet prior to their simulation training.
2. Simulation training (~45 minutes. Consider combing with the training of the shoulder exam (coming soon), a total of ~70 minutes): It is critical that both the learner and instructor treat the simulation like a true clinical encounter. This provides more opportunity for the instructor to identify and correct learner errors, and to reduce the intrinsic and extrinsic cognitive load for the learner when they perform the procedure in a clinical setting. Have each learner take turns being the proceduralists with another willing-learner or standardized patient serving as the model. Move through the procedural worksheet, step-by-step. Do not omit the critical step of clearly identifying appropriate indications and contraindications. For the simulation, we simply ask the learner to list the potential indications and contraindications. In the clinical procedure, we ask for the specific indication identified for this encounter and ask the learner to report the historical feature and/or demonstrate the physical exam finding that supports the proposed diagnosis.
We use a semi-sterile or “no-touch technique” for this procedure. Using non-sterile gloves we ask the learner to identify the supplies they will use for each step to ensure they have all necessary supplies and can explain why. We ask them to draw up the lidocaine and steroid from pre-filled vials of saline while offering suggestions for improved technique. These tips include cleaning the vial tops with alcohol swabs, using a separate needle for drawing up solutions and for the procedure, injecting air into a vial when drawing up more than 3cc's, and drawing up lidocaine first so a small amount can be injected into the small steroid vial to increase the amount of steroid than can be aspirated.
After the supplies are prepped, we supervise the correct identification and marking of the scapular spine and lateral margin of the acromion. We have them draw two straight and connecting lines to identify the posterior-lateral point of the acromion. Then identify the insertion point 2cm below that point. After the site is correctly marked, the learner will sterilize the site using the scrub technique (30 seconds). Then, while using their non-dominant hand to stabilize and support the patient's shoulder, they will use the capped injection needle to demonstrate their preferred approach to the injection site. After providing feedback on the trajectory, the learner verbalizes the next steps of the procedure, to its completion by placing a bandaid over the marked site.
3. Directly observe clinical procedure: Ideally, the simulation training closely precedes (hours to days) the clinical procedure, allowing for maximal opportunity to reinforce the learning in a clinical setting. However, this is often not possible. Either way, the learner should watch the clinical procedure video beforehand and verbally review the steps of the clinical checklist before starting the procedure. Again, one of the most important and often overlooked steps is the learner's correct identification and demonstration of an appropriate indication. It is important to educate the patient on the value of physical therapy in providing more long-term, sustainable benefits to the procedure.
The day before you plan to do an in-person procedure training ask your trainees to:
2. Fill out this 1-page worksheet on the indications and technical steps to the clinical procedure. (coming soon)
Lidocaine 1% (5cc)
Triamcinolone 40mg/ml (1cc)
Alcohol swabs (#2)
18g needle (for drawing up)
21-25g 1.5” needle (for injection)
Example procedure note
McNabb, J. W. (2014). A Practical Guide to Joint & Soft Tissue Injections. United States: Wolters Kluwer Health.
AAOS. (2018). Essentials of Musculoskeletal Care. United States: Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC.
Tallia, A. F., & Cardone, D. A. (2003). Diagnostic and therapeutic injection of the shoulder region. American family physician, 67(6), 1271-1278.